This course examines how design philosophies and methodologies were developed in Japanese architecture during the 130-year period from the Meiji Restoration until the postmodern era. Special attention is paid to the process of urbanization through repeated destructions and the forming of cultural identity through mutual interactions with the West, both of which worked as major forces that shaped architectural developments. Highlighted architects include Chuta Ito, Goichi Takeda, Frank Lloyd Wright, Kameki Tsuchiura, Sutemi Horiguchi, Kunio Maekawa, Kenzo¯ Tange, Arata Isozaki, Fumihiko Maki, Kisho Kurokawa, Kazuo Shinohara, Tadao Ando, and Mirei Shigemori. Historical photos and excerpts from films are used to better understand context. Students are required to make in-class presentations and write a final paper.