The search for an architecture that is both Chinese and modern has been under way for more than a hundred years. At the beginning of the last century, many were looking for just such a new language of building—one that could be both culturally specific and international. China started this grappling early, and it continues to this day. This architectural quest has run parallel to radically changing ideas of what China and Chinese ought to represent. This seminar examines experiments in Chinese building during three important periods: around the May Fourth Movement (1919), during Nationalist China (1927–48), and in the inaugural years of the People’s Republic. Each period had its own distinct mindset, but in all of them the reimagining of Chinese architecture was considered of paramount importance. While this course reviews the “tradition” of Chinese architecture, its focus is on the “experiments” in changing it. Students research is concentrated on identifying and exploring case studies using primary resources located in Yale University’s deep research collections (e.g., Sterling Memorial Library’s periodical holdings and Manuscripts and Archives collections, along with the Divinity School’s records on China-based missions).