Concepts of human variation remain a fundamental catalyst for subject and social formation in the West. The racial, a formidable tool for calibrating human difference, was mobilized by Europeans to distinguish them from those peoples encountered through colonial expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa; through these categories and others the modern world would be discovered, conquered, known and whose human and material resources could be extracted via capitalism. This course examines race in architecture. The seminar closely reads and discusses primary treatises and manifestos, scholarly essays and books, along with reviewing drawings, models, buildings, and urban plans to trace a genealogy of how concepts of human and racial difference shaped modern architectural discourse and practices. Critical for the seminar is to understand how and why the racial evolves in western philosophy. These concepts are found in the writings Kant, Hegel, and others from which architectural theory and history derives its conceptual frameworks. The course also charts a history of the racial in order to understand its presence in the writings and projects of various of architects, theorists, and historians. One key objective of the seminar is to understand why the discipline and profession of architecture has been resistant to recognize how the racial has been part of its discursive genealogy. Over the course of the term, scholars in architectural history who are undertaking innovative research on the topic share their work with the seminar.